Introduction to iPhone Application Development

Introduction to iOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. iOS was launched by Apple Inc. on June 29, 2007 with the very first iPhone. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.


iPhone was developed from the Steve Job’s idea of shrinking the Mac and he achieved it in companion with Scott Forstall. The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year. Apple announced the iPhone SDK ( Software Development Kit ) on March 6, 2008. The iOS App Store was opened on July 10, 2008 with an initial 500 applications available. iPod Touch which had most of the non-phone capabilities of the iPhone was released on September 5, 2007.On January 27, 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading.In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS".

iOS - Evolution

Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system annually via iTunes and also, for iOS 5 and later, over the air.The latest version is iOS 10, released on September 13, 2016.

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iOS 3

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iOS 10

iOS App Development


iOS App Development is a multi-tiered process, starting with choosing the right design platform and programming language and ending with a user-friendly native app. It is operated within Apple's integrated development environment (IDE) and write code using the Swift or Objective-C programming languages. Apple's Xcode IDE is the most efficient and comprehensive tool used for iOS App Development i.e., also freely available. To launch a successful app, developers must deliver an effective user interface (UI) that enhances the user experience (UX) at all levels.

Tools and IDE

Xcode is the Tool and IDE required for iOS App Development. Tool for building iOS applications can be cross-platform frameworks, but Apple's Xcode IDE is the most efficient and comprehensive iOS application development tool available.


Xcode includes all the features developers need to design, develop and debug an iOS app. It can also build applications for Mac (OS X), Apple Watch (watchOS) and Apple TV (tvOS). It provides the editors and features necessary to work with the code and interface elements, organizes files and templates It supports source code for C, C++, Objective-C, Objective-C++, Java, AppleScript, Python, Ruby, ResEdit (Rez), and Swift. It also provides tools such as the iOS Simulator, which determines how an app will look and behave on different devices.

iOS Languages


Objective-C is the primary programming language i.e., used when writing software for OS X and iOS. It’s a superset of the C language and provides object-oriented capabilities and a dynamic runtime. Objective-C inherits the syntax, primitive types, and flow control statements of C and adds syntax for defining classes and methods. It also adds language-level support for object graph management and object literals while providing dynamic typing and binding, deferring many responsibilities until runtime.

Swift Language

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux. Swift is intended to be more resilient to erroneous code than Objective-C, and more concise. It supports many core concepts that are associated with Objective-C such as dynamic dispatch, widespread late binding, extensible programming etc.

iOS Architecture

iOS Architecture is a layered architecture and the layers are namely, Core OS, Core Services, Media Layer and Cocoa Touch. Below given are the layers in iOS

Core OS Layer

Core Services Layer

Media Layer

Cocoa Touch Layer


Jr.iOS Developer

Surya Chand

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